El Nino is a phase of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation Cycle also known as ENSO. The cycle has fluctuations in temperature between the ocean and atmosphere in the east-central Equatorial Pacific region.
It is a naturally occurring phenomenon periodically the warming of the sea surface temperatures across the central and east-central Equatorial Pacific. It occurs after every 2 – 7 years towards the end of the year and can last from nine months to two years.
Though El Nino and El Nina are naturally occurring phenomenon there are reasons that cause or affect them too such as :
El Nino impacts the weather in various parts of the world :
- Large amounts of rainfall in the eastern parts of the Pacific and conversely western parts of the world such as India experience extremely dry weather.
- This increases the chances of droughts in western regions thus leading to a drop in rice production as most Asian regions depend on rainfall to get water and thus can have a negative impact on the rice production. Simultaneously countries like Austraila will face a drop in wheat production.
- While the western countries face drought the eastern countries can have a dramatic increase in rainfall thus leading to flooding and cause not only flooding but damage crops and cause economic problems similar to the western countries.
- Fishing communities in countries like Ecuador and Peru face more difficulties as fishes disappear during the weather changes and around the end of the year, affecting the income generated by fishing
- El Nino can cause thunderstorms and several tropical cyclones such as hurricanes to occur in South America and drastically affect a change in global wind cycle circulation because of displacement of atmospheric heat to the east. If it isn’t hot and hurricanes are lesser than extremely cold, wetter weather can occur during winter and autumn.